Kenneth Raffa

Prof. Ken Raffa

Kenneth Raffa


345 Russell Laboratories
1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706


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Ph.D. Washington State University-Pullman, 1980 (Entomology)
MS University of Delaware, 1976 (Entomology)
BS Saint Joseph’s College, 1972 (Biology)

Our program addresses mechanisms that drive the population dynamics of forest insects, with special emphasis on plant-insect interactions, predator-prey relationships, and insect-microbial-symbioses. We investigate each  within  the  context  of host  plant  properties  that  affect  herbivore  behavior, reproduction, and susceptibility to natural enemies, as well as herbivore counter-adaptations against multiple ecological constraints. We analyze biological thresholds and cross-scale interactions in insect outbreaks. Our study systems involve insects that pose challenges to natural resource management, so this information can improve our ability to address invasive species, sustainable production systems, biodiversity, and global change.

Our recent research highlights include: 1) How host selection behavior of individual bark beetles varies with beetle population density and thereby generates positive feedback during transitions  from  non-outbreak to outbreak conditions. These behaviors involve genetic, environmental responses to host compounds; 2) How attraction by predators to chemical signaling among herbivores can drive biochemical counter-adaptations that allow partial escape while allowing intraspecific functionality; 3) The critical role of thresholds in linking patterns with processes of insect outbreaks, specifically that tree defense is a crucial determinant of whether outbreaks occur, yet  inconsequential after they do. 4) Beetles egest bacteria in oral secretions that inhibit opportunist fungi from exploiting host trees after their defenses are exhausted by beetle mass attacks; 5) Enteric gut bacteria are crucial to susceptibility of gypsy moth to the microbial pathogen Bt. Future research will expand our results on how microscale processes such as insect-symbiont-plant interactions can have landscape-scale outcomes.

All are collaborative projects, with interdisciplinary colleagues from UW depts. Forest & Wildlife Ecol, Plant Path, Microbio, and Zool, the US Forest Service, and various universities.

ENT/PLP/FWE 500: Insects & Diseases in Forest Resource Management

ENT / BOT/ ZOOL 473: Plant-Insect Interactions

ENT 601: Methods of Scientific Presentation

2015 University of Delaware CANR Distinguished Alumnus Award
2015 Vilas Distinguished Achievement / Douglas D Sorenson Professor, UW-Madison
2012 Fellow, Entomological Society of America
2011 Silverstein-Simeone Lecture Award, International Society of Chemical Ecology
2010 Entomological Society of America Founders Award
2010 Beers-Bascom Professorship in Conservation, UW-Madison
2008 Kellett MidCareer Research Award, UW-Madison
2000 Vilas Associate, UW-Madison
1999 Robert G.F. and Hazel T. Spitze Land Grant Faculty Award for Excellence
1995 USDA Forest Service “Bridging Ideas and Partnerships” Award
1991 Glenn Pound Outstanding Researcher Award, CALS, University of Wisconsin


Interactions Across Multiple Levels of Scale: Chemical Signaling, Population Thresholds, Responses to Anthropogenic Change

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Raffa, K.F., & A.A. Berryman.  1983.  The role of host plant resistance in the colonization behavior and ecology of bark beetles.  Ecol. Monogr.  53: 27-49.

Raffa, K.F., & A.A. Berryman.  1987.  Interacting selective pressures in conifer-bark beetle systems:  A basis for reciprocal adaptations?  Amer. Nat. 129: 234-262.

Raffa, K.F. & E.B. Smalley. 1995. Interaction of pre-attack and induced monoterpene concentrations in conifer defense against bark beetle-microbial complexes.  Oecologia.  102: 285-295.

Raffa, K.F. 2001.  Mixed messages across multiple trophic levels:  The ecology of bark beetle chemical communication systems.  Chemoecology  11: 49-65.

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2002.  Relative effects of exophytic predation, endophytic predation and intraspecific competition on a subcortical herbivore:  Consequences to the reproduction of Ips pini and Thanasimus dubius.  Oecologia. 133: 483-491.

Wallin, K.F., J. Rutledge, & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Heritability of host acceptance and gallery construction behaviors of the bark beetle Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Environ. Entomol.  31: 1276-1281.

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2004. Gender- and sequence- dependent predation within group colonizers of defended plants: a constraint on cheating among bark beetles?  Oecologia.  138: 253-258.

Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa. 2004.  Feedback between individual host selection behavior and population dynamics in an eruptive insect herbivore.  Ecol. Monogr.  74: 101-116.

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2004. Does aggregation benefit bark beetles by diluting predation?  Links between a group-colonization strategy and the absence of emergent multiple predator effects. Ecol. Entomol. 29:129-138.

Aukema, B. H., A. L. Carroll, J. Zhu, K. F. Raffa, T. A. Sickley, & S. W. Taylor. 2006. Landscape level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada: Spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. Ecography.  29: 427-441.

Maroja, L. S., S. M. Bogdanowicz, K. F. Wallin, K. F. Raffa & R. G. Harrison. 2007. Phylogeography of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) (Curculionidae:Scolytinae) in North America: distinctive mtDNA lineages associated with different species of host trees. 16: 2560-2573

Raffa KF , Aukema BH, Erbilgin N, Klepzig KD, & Wallin, KF. 2005.  Interactions among conifer terpenoids and bark beetles across multiple levels of scale: An attempt to understand links between population patterns and physiological processes.  Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 39:  80-118.

Raffa, K. F. Aukema, B. H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll A.L., Hicke, J.A., Turner MG, & W. H. Romme. 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: The dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions. BioScience. 58: 501-517

Boone, C., B. Aukema, J. Bohlmann, A. Carroll, & K. F. Raffa. 2011. Efficacy of tree defense physiology varies with herbivore population density.  Can. J. For. Res. 41: 1174-1188.

Powell, EN, Townsend PA & KF Raffa. 2012. Wildfire provides refuge from local extinction but is an unlikely driver of outbreaks by mountain pine beetle. Ecol. Monogr. 82:69-84.

Raffa KR, Powell EN & PA Townsend. 2013. Temperature-driven range expansion of an irruptive insect heightened by weakly coevolved plant defenses. PNAS 110: 2193-2198.

Jamieson MA, Trowbridge AM, Raffa KF & RL Lindroth. 2012. Consequences of climate change for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol, Update. 160: 1719-1727.

Lindgren, BS. & KF Raffa. 2013. Evolution of tree-killing in bark beetles: Trade-offs between the maddening crowds and a sticky situation. Can. Entomol. CP Alexander Review 145: 471-495.

Raffa, KF. 2014. Terpenes tell different tales at different scales. Glimpses into the chemical ecology of conifer  – bark beetle – microbial interactions. J. Chem. Ecol. 40: 1-20.

Schwartzberg EG, MA Jamieson, KF Raffa, PB Reich, RA Montgomery & RL Lindroth. 2014,  Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees. Oecologia. 175: 1041-1049.

Jamieson MA, Schwartzberg EG, Raffa KF, Reich PB, & RL Lindroth. 2015. Experimental warming alters aspen and birch phytochemistry and performance traits for an outbreak insect herbivore. Global Change Biology 21: 2698–2710.

Mason CJ, Klepzig KD, Kopper BJ, Kersten PJ, Illman BL & KF Raffa. 2015. Contrasting patterns of diterpene acid induction by red pine and white spruce to simulated bark beetle attack, and interspecific differences in sensitivity among fungal associates. J. Chem. Ecol. 41: 524-532.

Anderegg, WRL , JA Hicke, RA Fisher, CD Allen, J Aukema, B Bentz, S Hood, JW Lichstein, AK Macalady, N McDowell, Y Pan, KF Raffa, A Sala, JD Shaw, NL Stephenson, C Tague & M Zeppel.  2015. Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.13477.

Bentz BJ, Boone, C., & KF Raffa. 2015. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pine stands. Agric. & For. Entomol 17: 421-432.

Raffa KF, Grégoire J-C, & Lindgren BS. 2015. Natural history and ecology of bark beetles. Chpt. 1, pp 1-40, In Vega FE & Hofstetter RW, Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species. Elsevier, New York, NY.  620 pp.

Raffa KF, Aukema BH, Bentz BJ, Carroll AL, Hicke JA & Kolb TE. 2015. Responses of tree-killing bark beetles to a changing climate. In Bjorkman C & Niemela P.  Climate Change and Insect Pests, CABI, Wallingfored England. Pp. 173-201.

Uelmen JA Jr., RL Lindroth, PC Tobin, PB Reich, EG Schwartzberg, KF Raffa. 2016. Population source, spring temperatures, and overwintering regime interact to structure phenology of insect – plant interactions: implications to changing climate in the southern boreal forest. For. Ecol. & Mngmt. 362: 241-250.

Lindroth, RL & KF Raffa. 2016. Experimental approaches for assessing invertebrate responses to global change factors. In Johnson, SN & TH Jones (eds.) Invertebrates and Global Climate Change. Wiley Blackwell.

Buotte PC, JA Hicke, HK Preisler, JT Abatzoglou, KF Raffa & JA Logan. 2016. Historical and future climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pines in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Global Change Biology. In Press.

Keefover-Ring K, Trowbridge A, Mason CJ, & Raffa, KF. 2016. Rapid induction of multiple terpenoid groups by Ponderosa Pine in response to bark beetle -associated fungi.  J. Chem. Ecol.  42: 1-12.

Raffa KF, Anderson MN & Schlyter S. 2016. Host selection by bark beetles” Playing the odds in a high-stakes game. In Tittiger C & Blomquist G. in Pine Bark Beetles, Advances in Insect Physiology. Elsevier. London. 1-74.

Tritrophic Interactions

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Raffa, K.F., & K. D. Klepzig.  1989.  Chiral escape of bark beetles from predators responding to bark beetle pheromones.  Oecologia.  80: 566-569.

Raffa, K.F.  1991.  Induced defensive reactions in conifer-bark beetle systems.  Pages 245-276.  In:  D.W. Tallamy and M.J. Raupp (eds.), Phytochemical Induction by  Herbivores.  Academic Press.  NY.

Krause, S.C., & K.F. Raffa.  1992.  Comparison of insect, fungal, and mechanically induced defoliation of larch:  Effects on plant productivity and host suitability and availability.  Oecologia.  90: 411-416.

Raffa, K.F. & D.L. Dahlsten.  1995.  Differential responses among natural enemies and prey to bark beetle pheromones.  Oecologia.  102: 17-23.

Codella, S.G., & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Host plant influence on chemical defense in conifer sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae).  Oecologia.  104:1-11.

Rieske, L.K., & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Ethylene emission by a deciduous tree, Tilia americana, in response to feeding by the introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus.  J. Chem. Ecol.  21: 187-197.

Codella, S.G., & K.F. Raffa. 1996.  Individual and social components of wood ant response to conifer sawfly defense behavior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Diprionidae).  Anim. Behav.  52: 801-811.

Raffa, K.F., Krause, S.C., & P. Reich.  1998.  Long-term influence of defoliation on Pinus resinosa suitability to insect herbivores feeding on diverse plant parts.  Ecology.  79: 352-364.

Hofstetter, R.W., & K.F. Raffa.  1998.  Endogenous and exogenous factors affecting the orientation and development of the gypsy moth egg parasite, Ooencyrtus kuvanae.  Entomol. Exper. et Applic.  88: 123-135.

Kleiner, K.W., Raffa, K.F., & R.E. Dickson, 1999.  Partitioning of 14C labeled photosynthate to allelochemicals and primary metabolites in source and sink leaves of aspen:  Evidence for phenolic turnover.  Oecologia 119: 408-418.

Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa. 1999.   Effects of eliciting treatment and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus:  Impacts on gypsy moth development and feeding behavior.  Oecologia.  120: 295-303.

Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa.  2000. Compound effects of induced plant responses on  insect herbivores and parasitoids:  Implications for tritrophic interactions. Ecol.  Entomol. 25: 171-179.

Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa.  2001. Effects of folivory on subcortical plant defenses: Can defense theories predict interguild processes?  Ecology 82: 1387-1400.

Codella, S.G., Jr. & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Desiccation of Pinus  foliage induced by conifer sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) oviposition:  Effect of egg viability.  Ecol. Entomol.  27: 618-621.

Kleiner, K.K. Ellis, D.D., McCown, B.H. and K.F. Raffa. 2003. Leaf ontogeny influences leaf phenolics and the efficacy of the genetically expressed Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A(a) d-endotoxin in hybrid poplar against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae).  J. Chem. Ecol.. 29: 2585-2602.

Kendrick, A. P., & K. F. Raffa.  2006. Sources of insect and plant volatiles attractive to cottonwood leaf beetles feeding on hybrid poplar.  J. Chem. Ecol.  32: 2585-2594.

Boone, C. K., D.L. Six, Y. Zheng,& K.F. Raffa.  2008. Exploitation of microbial symbionts of bark beetles by parasitoids and dipteran predators. Environ. Entomol. 37: 150-161.

Boone, C. K, Six, D. L.  & K. F. Raffa. 2008. The enemy of my enemy is still my enemy: Competitors add to predator load of primary bark beetles. Ag. For. Entomol. 10: 411-421.

Costa A, A Min, CK Boone, AP Kendrick, R Murphy, W Sharpee, KF Raffa & JD Reeve. 2013. Dispersal and edge behaviour of bark beetles and predators inhabiting red pine plantations.  Agric. & For. Entomol. 15: 1–11

Johnson, TD, JP Lelito & KF Raffa. 2014. Responses of two parasitoids, the exotic Spathius agrili Yang and the native Spathius floridanus Ashmead, to volatile cues associated with the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire.  Biol. Control. 79: 110-117.

Pfammatter JA, Krause A & KF Raffa. 2015. Evaluating predators and competitors in Wisconsin red pine forests for attraction to mountain pine beetle pheromones for anticipatory biological control. Env. Entomol. 44:1161-1171.

Effects of Belowground Herbivory on Above-Ground Processes

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Hunt, D.W.A., & K.F. Raffa.  1989.  Attraction of the pine root collar weevil, Hylobius radicis, and the pitch-eating weevil, Pachylobius picivorus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to ethanol and turpentine in pitfall traps.  Environ. Entomol.  18: 351-355.

Klepzig, K.D., K.F. Raffa, & E.B. Smalley.  1991.  Association of insect-fungal complexes with Red Pine Decline in Wisconsin.  For. Sci. 37: 1119-1139.

Klepzig, K.D., E.L. Kruger, E.B. Smalley, & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with a bark beetle vectored fungus.  J. Chem. Ecol.  21: 601-626.

Klepzig, K.D., Smalley, E.B., & K.F. Raffa.  1996.  Combined chemical defenses against insects and fungi associated with a forest decline disease.  J. Chem. Ecol.  22:  1367-1388.

Hoffman, G.D., D.W.A. Hunt, S.M. Salom, & K.F. Raffa.  1997.  Reproductive readiness and niche differences affect conifer root weevil responses to simulated host odors.  Environ. Entomol.  26: 91-100.

Erbilgin, N., & K.F. Raffa.  2002.  Association of declining red pine stands with reduced populations of bark beetle predators, seasonal increases in root colonizing insects, and incidence of root pathogens.  For. Ecol. & Manag. 164: 221-236.

Erbilgin, N. & K. F. Raffa. 2003.  Spatial analysis of forest gaps resulting from bark beetle colonization of red pines experiencing belowground herbivory and infection.  For. Ecol. & Manag. 177: 145-153.

Coyle, D., W. Mattson, & K. Raffa. 2008. Invasive root feeding insects in natural forest ecosystems of North America. Pp. 146-162, In S. Johnson & P. Murray (eds), Root Feeders: an ecosystem perspective. CABI.

Aukema, B.H., J. Zhu, J. Moeller, J. Rasmussen  & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Interactions between below- and above- ground herbivores drive a forest decline and gap-forming syndrome. For. Ecol. & Management.  259: 374-382.

Coyle DR, Murphy MW, Paskewitz SM, Orrock JL, Lee X, Murphy RJ, McGeehin MA, & KF Raffa. 2013. Belowground herbivory initiates a cascade that increases abundance of Lyme disease vectors. Forest Ecology & Management. 302:354-362.

Lee X, Coyle DR, Johnson DKH, Murphy MW, McGeehin MA, Murphy RJ, Raffa KF & SM Paskewitz. 2014. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs collected in managed red pine forests in Wisconsin. J. Medical Entomol. 51: 694-701.

Symbiotic Associations among Microorganisms and Insects

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Paine, T.D., K.F. Raffa, & T.C. Harrington.  1997.  Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and host conifers.  Ann. Rev. Entomol.  42: 179-206.

Haberkern, K.E., Illman, B.L. & K. F. Raffa . 2002.. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.  Can. J. For. Res.  32: 1137-1150.

Broderick, N. A., K. F. Raffa, R. M. Goodman & J. Handelsman.  2004. Census of the bacterial  community of the gypsy moth larval midgut using culturing and culture-independent methods. Appl. & Environ. Microbiol. 2004 70: 293-300.

Kopper, B. J. , K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa   2004. Components of antagonism and mutualism in Ips pini – fungal interactions: Relationship to a life history of colonizing highly stressed and dead trees. Environ. Entomol. 33:28-34.

Aukema, B.H., Werner, RA, Haberkern K.E, Illman, BL Clayton, M, K. & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Relative sources of variation in spruce beetle-fungal associations: Implications for sampling methodology and hypothesis testing in bark beetle-symbiont relationships. For. Ecol. & Manag..  217: 187-202.

Cardoza, Y. J., K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa. 2006.  Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi.  Ecol. Entomol. 31: 636-645

Broderick, N.A., K. F. Raffa, K.F.  & J Handelsman.  2006. Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity. PNAS. 103: 15196-15199.

Little, A., C. J. Robinson, S.B. Peterson, K. F. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2008. Rules of Engagement: Interspecies interactions that regulate microbial communities. Ann. Rev. Microbiology. 62: 375-401.

Vasanthakumar, A, I. J. Handelsman, P. Schloss, L. Bauer & K. F Raffa. 2008. Gut microbiota of an invasive wood boring beetle, the emerald ash borer: community composition and structure across different life stages. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1344-1353.

Klepzig, K.D., Adams, A.S., Handelsman, J., & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Symbioses: A key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification and impacts on humans. Environ. Entomol. 38: 67-77.

Broderick N. A., K. F. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2010. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis. BMC Biology. 10: 129; 13 pp.

Adams, AS, CK Boone, J Bohlmann & KF Raffa. 2011. Responses of bark beetle-associated bacteria to host monoterpenes, and their relationship to insect life histories. J. Chem. Ecol. 37:808–817.

Adams AS, Jordan MS, Adams SM, Suen G, Goodwin LA, Davenport KW, Currie CR, & Raffa KF. 2011. Community and genomic analysis of cellulose-degrading bacteria associated with the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio.  Intern. Soc. Microbial Ecology 5: 1323-1333

Adams AA, F Aylward, SM. Adams, N Erbilgin, B Aukema, C Currie, G Suen & KF Raffa. 2013. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naïve host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism. Applied & Environ. Microbiology 79: 3468-3475.

Boone, CK, Adams AA, Bohlmann, J, Keefover-Ring, K, Mapes AC, & KF Raffa. 2013. Bacteria associated with a tree-killing insect reduce concentrations of plant defense compounds. J. Chem. Ecol. 39: 1003-1006.

Pfammatter JA Moser JC & KF Raffa. 2013. Mites phoretic on Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Wisconsin red pine stands. Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 106: 204-213

Mason, CJ & KF Raffa. 2014. Acquisition and structuring of larval midgut bacterial communities in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).   Environ. Entomol. 43: 595‹604.

Mason, CJ, JJ Coutre & KF Raffa. 2014. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator. Oecologia. 3:901-910.

Mason, CJ, Z Cannizzo, & KF Raffa. 2014. Influence of diet and density on laboratory cannibalism behaviors in gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar).J. Insect Behavior. 27: 693-700.

Mason, CJ, EL Zeldin, CR Currie, KF Raffa & BH McCown.  2014. Populations of uncultivated American cranberry in sphagnum bog communities harbor novel assemblages of Actinobacteria with antifungal properties Botany. 92: 589-595

Book A, Lewin G, McDonald B, Takasuka T, Doering D, Adams S, Blodgett J, Clardy J, Raffa, K, Fox B & Currie C. 2014. Cellulolytic Streptomyces strains associated with herbivorous insects share a phylogenetically-linked capacity for the degradation of lignocellulose. Applied & Env. Microbiol. 80:4692-4701.

Aylward, FO , G Suen, PHW Biedermann, AS Adams, JJ Scott, SA Malfatti, TG del Rio, SG Tringe, M Poulsen, KF Raffa, KD Klepzig & CR Currie. 2014. Convergence of bacterial microbiota in agriculture in insects. mBio. 5(6) doi:10.1128/mBio.02077-14.

Mason, CJ, JA. Pfammatter, LM Holeski & KF Raffa 2015. Foliar bacterial community of trembling aspen in a common garden. Can. J. Microbiol. 61: 143-149.

Mason CJ, Rubert-Nason, KF, Lindroth RL & KF Raffa. 2015. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth. J. Chem. Ecol. 41: 75-84.

Therrien J, CJ Mason, A Adams, BH Aukema, CR Currie, KF Raffa & N Erbilgin. 2015. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and opportunistic fungi: implications to climate-driven host range expansion. Oecologia. 179: 467-485.

Mason CJ, AS Hanshew & KF Raffa. 2015. Contributions by host trees and insect activity to bacterial communities in Dendroctonus valens LeConte galleries, and their high overlap with other microbial assemblages of bark beetles. 2016. Environ. Entomol. 45: 348-356.

Book AJ, Gina R. Lewin GR, McDonald BR, Takasuka TE, Wendt-Pienkowski E, Doering DT, Suh S, Raffa KF, Fox BG & Currie CR.  2016. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in Streptomyces. PlosOneBiology. 14(6): e1002475. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002475.

Invasive Species

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Krause, S.L., & K.F. Raffa.  1996.  Defoliation tolerance affects the spatial and temporal distributions of larch sawfly and natural enemy populations.  Ecol. Entomol.  21: 101-111.

Rieske, L.K., & K.F. Raffa.  1998.  Interactions among insect herbivore guilds: Influence of thrips-induced bud injury on phytochemistry and subsequent foliar suitability to gypsy moths.  J. Chem. Ecol. 24: 501-524.

Liebhold, A.M., K. Raffa, & A. Diss.  2005. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae in Wisconsin.  Agr. & For. Entomol.  7: 179-185.

Pinski, R.A., W.J. Mattson & K.F. Raffa. 2005. Composition, seasonal phenologies, and distribution of an invasive root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests. Environ. Entomol. 34: 298-307.

Werner, S.M., E.V. Nordheim, & K. F. Raffa. 2005.  Impacts of the Introduced Basswood Thrips (Thrips calcaratus Uzel) on Forest Health in the Great Lakes Region.  For. Ecol. & Manag.  214: 183-200.

Werner, S.M., M. Albers, T. Cryderman, D. Divini, R. Heyd, B Hrasovic , S Kobro, S Larsson, R. Mech, P. Niemela, M. Rousi, K Scanlon, S Weber & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Is the outbreak status of Thrips calcaratus Uzel in North America due to altered host relationships? For. Ecol. & Manag.  225: 200-206.

Gray, R.H., C. G. Lorimer,P.C. Tobin & K.F. Raffa. 2008. Pre-outbreak dynamics of a recently established invasive herbivore: Roles of natural enemies and habitat structure in stage-specific performance of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations in northeastern Wisconsin. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1174-1184.

Contarini, M, KS. Onufrieva, KW. Thorpe, KF Raffa & PC Tobin. 2009. Mate-finding failure as an important cause of Allee effects along the leading edge of an invading insect population. Entomol. Exper. Applic. 133:307-314.

Coyle, D R, WJ Mattson, & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Laboratory performance of polyphagous invasive weevils on the predominant woody plant species of a northern hardwood community. Environ. Entomol. 39: 1242-1248.

Coyle, DR, WJ Mattson, MS Jordan & KF Raffa. 2012. Variable host phenology does not pose a barrier to invasive weevils (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae) in a northern hardwood forest. Agric. & For. Entomol. 14: 276-285.

Coyle DR, WJ Mattson Jr., AL Friend & KF Raffa. 2014. Effects of an invasive herbivore at the single plant scale do not extend to population scale seedling dynamics. Can. J. For. Res. 44: 8-16.

Johnson TD, Lelito, JP, Pfammatter JA & Raffa KF. 2016. Evaluation of tree mortality and parasitoid recoveries on the contiguous western invasion edge of emerald ash borer. Agr. & For. Entomol.  DOI: 10.1111/afe.12164

Program Info

Please visit the Raffa laboratory website for information about our research program