Rick Lindroth

Prof. Rick Lindroth

Rick Lindroth


839 Russell Laboratories
1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706

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Ph.D.  Biology (Ecology Program), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. 1984.
B.S.  Fisheries and Wildlife Biology, Iowa State University, Ames. 1977.

Ecology. Our research interests are broad, spanning the range from biochemical to ecosystem ecology, with a strong evolutionary perspective. A major emphasis is chemical mechanisms that mediate ecological interactions, with particular interest in plant-herbivore interactions. One focal area emphasizes the roles of genetics and resource availability in modulating plant defense characteristics, costs/benefits of defense, and consequences of variation in defense for multi-trophic interactions and ecosystem function. A second focal area investigates the effects of global environmental change (elevated temperature, enriched carbon dioxide, ozone) on plant-insect interactions, arthropod biodiversity, litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. A third focal area addresses the consequences of genetic manipulation of poplar as a biofuel for insect pest resistance. For additional information about these research programs, see the Lindroth Lab website.

Entomology 342. Insect Ecology.
Entomology and Molecular Environmental Toxicology 632, 633, 634. Ecotoxicology.
Entomology 903. Organismal entomology.

2016    Elected Fellow, Ecological Society of America
2012    Fellow, Academic Leadership Program, Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC).
2011    Vilas Associate Award, University of Wisconsin.
2010    Kellett Mid-Career Faculty Research Award, University of Wisconsin.
2009    Silverstein-Simeone Award in Chemical Ecology. International Society of Chemical Ecology.
2008    Aspen FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) “Pioneer” Award.
2006    Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
1997    Fulbright Senior Scholar Award, Council for International Exchange of Scholars.
1997    AgResearch Research Fellowship, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
1996    H.I. Romnes Award, University of Wisconsin.
1994    Glenn Pound Award for Outstanding Research, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, UW.
1985    National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in Environmental Biology.
1983    Sigma Xi Student Paper Competition Award, University of Illinois.
1983    List of Excellent Teachers, University of Illinois.
1978-79, 80-81  University Fellowships, University of Illinois.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, UW-Madison
Department of Integrative Biology, UW-Madison
Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, UW-Madison
Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, UW-Madison

Professional Societies:

American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Scientific Affiliation
Ecological Society of America
Entomological Society of America
International Society of Chemical Ecology





Barker, H.L., J.F. Riehl, C. Bernhardsson, K.F. Rubert-Nason, L.M. Holeski, P.K. Ingvarsson, R.L. Lindroth. 2019. Linking plant genes to insect communities: identifying the genetic bases of plant traits and community composition. Molecular Ecology 28:4404-4421. DOI: 10.1111/mec.15158

Cope, O.L, E.L. Kruger, K.F. Rubert-Nason, and R.L. Lindroth. 2019. Chemical defense over decadal scales: ontogenetic allocation trajectories and consequences for fitness in a foundation tree species. Functional Ecology (in press). DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13425

Mason, C.J, D.C. Long, R.L. Lindroth, and K. Hoover. 2019. Divergent host plant utilization by adults and offspring is related to intra-plant variation in chemical defences. Journal of Animal Ecology (in press). DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.13063

Buhl, C., S.H. Strauss, and R.L. Lindroth. 2019. Genetic down-regulation of gibberellin results in semi-dwarf poplar but few non-target effects on chemical resistance and tolerance to defoliation. Journal of Plant Ecology 12:124-136. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty003

Barker, H.L., L.M. Holeski, and R.L. Lindroth. 2019. Independent and interactive effects of plant genotype and environment on plant traits and insect herbivore performance: a meta-analysis with Salicaceae. Functional Ecology 33:422–435. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13249

Selmants, P.C., J.A. Schweitzer, K.L. Adair, L.M. Holeski, R.L. Lindroth, S.C. Hart, T.G. Whitham. 2019. Genetic variation in leaf chemistry predicts the abundance and activity of autotrophic soil microorganisms. Ecosphere 10(8):e02795. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.2795


Barker, H.L., L.M. Holeski, and R.L. Lindroth. 2018. Genotypic variation in plant traits shapes herbivorous insect and ant communities on a foundation tree species. PLoS ONE 13(7):e0200954. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200954

Falk, M.A., R.L. Lindroth, K.M. Keefover-Ring, and K.F. Raffa. 2018. Genetic variation in aspen phytochemical patterns structure windows of opportunity for gypsy moth larvae. Oecologia 187:471–482. DOI: org/10.1007/s00442-018-4160-0

Cope, O.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2018. Clonal ramets of trembling aspen do not coordinate defense induction. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44:1045-1050. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-018-1006-5

Rubert-Nason, K. K.M. Keefover-Ring, and R.L. Lindroth. 2018. Purification and analysis of salicinoids. Current Analytical Chemistry 14: 424-429. DOI: 10.2174/1573411014666171221131933

Woolbright, S.A., B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, S.P. DiFazio, G.D. Martinsen, M.S. Zinkgraf, G.J. Allan, P. Keim and T.G. Whitham. 2018. Large effect quantitative trait loci for salicinoid phenolic glycosides in Populus: implications for gene discovery. Ecology and Evolution 2018:8:3726–3737. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3932


Lindroth, R.L., and K.F. Raffa. 2017. Experimental approaches for assessing invertebrate responses to global change factors. Pp. 30-45, in Global Climate Change and Terrestrial Invertebrates. (S.N. Johnson and T.H. Jones, eds.) Wiley Blackwell Press, Oxford. DOI: 10.1002/9781119070894.ch3

Couture, J.J., T.D. Meehan, K.F. Rubert-Nason, and R.L. Lindroth. 2017. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on phytochemical composition of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Journal of Chemical Ecology 43:26-38. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-016-0798-4

Moorhead, L.C., L. Souza, C. Habeck, R.L. Lindroth, and A.T. Classen. 2017. Small mammal activity alters plant community composition and microbial activity in an old-field ecosystem. Ecosphere 8:e01777. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1777

Buhl, C.B., R. Meilan, and R.L. Lindroth. 2017. Genetic modification of lignin in hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus tremula) does not substantially alter plant defense or arthropod communities.  Journal of Insect Science 17:76; 1-8. DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iex052

Rubert-Nason, K.F., J.J. Couture, E.A. Gryzmala, P.A. Townsend and R.L. Lindroth. 2017. Vernal freeze damage and genetic variation alter tree growth, chemistry, and insect interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 40:2743-2753. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13042


Barnes, P.W., M.A. Tobler, K. Keefover-Ring, S.D. Flint, A.E. Barkley, R.J. Ryel, and R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids. Plant, Cell and Environment 39:222-230. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12609

Uelmen, J.A., Jr., J.G. Duman, R.L. Lindroth, E.G. Schwartzberg, and K.F. Raffa. 2016. Supercooling points of diapausing forest tent caterpillar eggs. The Canadian Entomologist 148:512-519. DOI: 10.4039/tce.2015.88

Couture, J.J., C.J. Mason, C.W. Habeck, R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Behavioral and morphological responses of an insect herbivore to low nutrient quality are inhibited by plant chemical defenses. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 10:341–349. DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9439-7

Couture, J.J., A. Singh, K.F. Rubert-Nason, S.P. Serbin, R.L. Lindroth, and P.A. Townsend. 2016. Spectroscopic determination of ecologically relevant plant secondary metabolites. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7:1402-1412.  DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12596

Barker, H.L., D. Smith, G. Stanosz, and R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Host genetics and environment shape fungal pathogen incidence on a foundation forest tree species, Populus tremuloides. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46:1167-1172.  DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2016-0116

Keefover-Ring, K., K.F. Rubert-Nason, A.E. Bennett, and R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Growth and chemical responses of trembling aspen to simulated browsing and ungulate saliva. Journal of Plant Ecology 9:474-484. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtv072

Cole, C.T., M.T. Stevens, J.E. Anderson, and R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen. Oecologia 181:381-390. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-016-3577-6

Uelmen, J. A., R.L. Lindroth, P.C. Tobin, P.B. Reich, E.G. Schwartzberg, and K.F. Raffa. 2016. Effects of winter temperatures, spring degree-day accumulation, and insect population source on phenological synchrony between forest tent caterpillar and host trees. Forest Ecology and Management 362:241-250. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.045

Holeski, L.M., S.C. McKenzie, E.L. Kruger, J.J. Couture, K.F. Rubert-Nason, and R.L. Lindroth. 2016. Phytochemical traits underlie genotypic variation in susceptibility of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) to browsing by a keystone forest ungulate. Journal of Ecology 104:850-863. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12559

Mason, C.J., T.F. Lowe, K.F. Rubert-Nason, R.L. Lindroth, and K.F. Raffa. 2016. Interactions between bacteria and aspen defense chemicals at the phyllosphere-herbivore interface. Journal of Chemical Ecology 42:193-201. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-016-0677-z


Madritch M.D. and R.L. Lindroth. 2015. Condensed tannins increase nitrogen recovery by trees following insect defoliation. New Phytologist 208:410-420. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13444

Rubert-Nason K.F., J.J. Couture, I.T. Major, C.P. Constabel, R.L. Lindroth. 2015. Influence of genotype, environment, and gypsy moth herbivory on local and systemic chemical defenses in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Journal of Chemical Ecology 41:651-661. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-015-0600-z

Buhl, C., S.H. Strauss, and R.L. Lindroth. 2015. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 9:85-95. DOI: 10.1007/s11829-014-9351-y

Jamieson, M.A., E.G. Schwartzberg, K.F. Raffa, P.B. Reich, and R.L. Lindroth. 2015. Experimental climate warming alters aspen and birch phytochemistry and performance traits for an outbreak insect herbivore. Global Change Biology 21:2698–2710. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12842

Mason, C.J., K.F. Rubert-Nason, R.L. Lindroth, and K.F. Raffa. 2015. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth. Journal of Chemical Ecology 41:75-84. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-014-0530-1

Couture, J.J., T.D. Meehan, E.L. Kruger, and R.L. Lindroth. 2015. Insect herbivory alters impact of atmospheric change on northern temperate forests. Nature Plants 1(3):1-5. DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2015.16


Meehan, T.D., J.J. Couture, A.E. Bennett, and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Herbivore-mediated material fluxes in a northern deciduous forest under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations. New Phytologist 204: 397–407.

Keefover-Ring, K., L.M. Holeski, M.D.Bowers, A.D. Clauss, and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Phenylpropanoid glycosides of Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). Phytochemistry Letters 10:132-139.

Schwartzberg, E.G., M.A. Jamieson, K.F. Raffa, P.B. Reich, R.A., Montgomery, and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees. Oecologia 175:1041-1049.

Madritch, M.D., C.C. Kingdon, A. Singh, K.E. Mock, R.L. Lindroth, and P.A. Townsend. 2014. Imaging spectroscopy links aspen genotype with below-ground processes at landscape scales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369:20130194.

Rubert-Nason, K.F., C.J. Hedman, L.M. Holeski, and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Determination of salicinoids by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection. Phytochemical Analysis 25:185-191.

Holeski, L.M., P. Monnahan, B. Koseva, N. McCool, R.L. Lindroth, and J.K. Kelly. 2014. A high-resolution genetic map of yellow monkeyflower identifies chemical defense QTLs and recombination rate variation. G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics 4:813-821.

Couture, J.J., L.M. Holeski, and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 alters aspen foliar chemistry across developmental stages. Plant, Cell and Environment 37:758-765.

Couture, J.J., and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Atmospheric change alters frass quality of forest canopy herbivores. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 8:33-47.

Stevens, M.T., A.C. Gusse and R.L. Lindroth. 2014. Root chemistry in Populus tremuloides: effects of soil nutrients, defoliation and genotype. Journal of Chemical Ecology 40:31-38.


Holeski, L.M, M.S. Zinkgraf, T.G. Whitham, J.J. Couture, and R.L. Lindroth. 2013. Transgenerational effects of herbivory in a group of long-lived tree species: maternal damage reduces offspring allocation to resistance traits, but not growth. Journal of Ecology 101:1062-1073.

Habeck, C.W., and R.L. Lindroth. 2013. Influence of Global Atmospheric Change on the Feeding Behavior and Growth Performance of a Mammalian Herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster. PLOS ONE 8:e72717.

Holeski, L.M., K. Keefover-Ring, M.D. Bowers, Z. HarnEnz, and R.L. Lindroth. 2013. Patterns of phytochemical variation in Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). Journal of Chemical Ecology 39:525-536.

Lindroth, R.L., and S.B. St. Clair. 2013. Adaptations of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) for defense against herbivores. Forest Ecology and Management 299: 14-21.

Rubert-Nason, K., L.M. Holeski, J.J. Couture, A. Gusse, D. Undersander, and R.L. Lindroth. 2013. Rapid phytochemical analysis of birch (Betula) and poplar (Populus) foliage by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405: 1333-1344.

Couture J.J., Lindroth R.L. 2013. Impacts of atmospheric change on tree-arthropod interactions. Developments in Environmental Science 13: 227-248.


Couture, J.J., and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Atmospheric change alters performance of an invasive forest insect. Global Change Biology 18: 3543-3557.

Couture, J.J., T.D. Meehan, and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species. Oecologia 168:863-876.

Holeski, L.H., M.L. Hillstrom, T.G. Whitham, and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Relative importance of genetic, ontogenetic, induction, and seasonal variation in producing a multivariate defense phenotype in a foundation tree species. Oecologia 170:695-707.

Jamieson, M.A., A.M. Trowbridge, K.F. Raffa, and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Consequences of climate warming and altered precipitation patterns for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiology 160:1719-1727.

Lindroth, R.L. 2012. Atmospheric change, plant secondary metabolites, and ecological interactions. Pp. 120-153 in The Ecology of Plant Secondary Metabolites: From Genes to Global Processes (G.R. Iason, M. Dicke and S. Hartley, eds). Cambridge University Press.

LeRoy, C.J., S.C. Wooley, and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Genotype and soil nutrient environment influence aspen litter chemistry and in-stream decomposition. Freshwater Science 31:1244-1253.

Meneses, N., J.K. Bailey, G.J. Allan, R.K. Bangert, M.K. Bowker, B.J. Rehill, G.M. Wimp, R.L. Lindroth, and T.G. Whitham. 2012. Arthropod community similarity in clonal stands of aspen: A test of the genetic similarity rule. Ecoscience 19:48-58.

Nabity, P.D., M.L. Hillstrom, R.L. Lindroth, and E.H. DeLucia. 2012. Elevated CO2 interactions with herbivory to alter chlorophyll fluoresence and leaf temperature in Betula papyrifa and Populus tremuloides. Oecologia 169:905-913.

Stevens, M.T., A.C. Gusse and R.L. Lindroth. 2012. Genotypic differences and prior defoliation affect re-growth and phytochemistry after coppicing in Populus tremuloides. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:306-314.


Madritch, M.D., and R.L. Lindroth. 2011. Soil microbial communities adapt to genetic variation in leaf litter inputs. Oikos. 120:1696-1704.

Lamit, L.J., M.A. Bowker, L.M. Holeski, R.R. Naesborg; S.C. Wooley, M. Zinkgraf, R.L. Lindroth, T.G. Whitham, and C.A.Gehring. 2011. Genetically-based trait variation within a foundation tree species influences a dominant bark lichen. Fungal Ecology 4:103-109.

Lamit, L.J., T. Wojtowicz, Z. Kovacs, S.C. Wooley, M. Zinkgraf, T.G. Whitham, R.L. Lindroth, C.A. Gehring. 2011. Hybridization among foundation tree species influences the structure of associated understory plant communities. Botany 89:165-174.

Scioneaux, A.N., M.A. Schmidt, M.A. Moore, R.L. Lindroth , S.C. Wooley and A.E. Hagerman. 2011. Qualitative variation in proanthocyanidin composition of Populus species and hybrids: genetics is the key. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37:57-70.

Schweitzer, J.A., D.G. Fischer, B.J. Rehill, S.C. Wooley, S.A. Woolbright, R.L. Lindroth, T.G. Whitham, D.R. Zak, and S.C. Hart. 2011. Forest gene diversity is correlated with the composition and function of soil microbial communities. Population Ecology 53:35-46.


Cole, C.T., J.E. Anderson, R.L. Lindroth, and D.M. Waller. 2010. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). Global Change Biology 16:2186-2197.

Couture, J.J., J.S. Servi, and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Increased nitrogen availability influences predator-prey interactions by altering host plant quality. Chemoecology 20:277-284.

Hillstrom, M.L., L.M. Vigue, D.R. Coyle, K.F. Raffa, and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Performance of the invasive weevil Polydrusus sericeus is influenced by atmospheric CO2 and host species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12:285-292.

Hillstrom, M.L., T.D. Meehan, K. Kelly, and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization following deposition of insect frass and greenfall from forests under elevated CO2 and O3. Plant and Soil 336:75-85.

Lindroth, R.L. 2010. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on forests: phytochemistry, trophic interactions, and ecosystem dynamics. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36:2-21.

Meehan, T.D., M.S. Crossley, and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Impacts of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen leaf litter chemistry and earthworm and springtail productivity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42:1132-1137.

Mondor, E.B. , C.A. Awmack, and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Individual growth rates do not predict aphid population densities under altered atmospheric conditions. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12:293-299.

Vigue, L.M., and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. Effects of genotype, elevated CO2, and elevated O3 on aspen phytochemistry and aspen leaf beetle Chrysomela crotchi performance. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12:267-276.

Constabel, P.C., and R.L. Lindroth. 2010. The impact of genomics on advances in herbivore defense and secondary metabolism in Populus. Pp. 279-305 in The Genetics and Genomics of Populus. Plant Genetics and Genomics, Vol. 8 (S. Jansson, R. Bhalerao, and A. Groover, eds). Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York.


Diner, B., D. Berteaux, J. Fyles, and R.L. Lindroth. 2009. Behavioral archives link the chemistry and clonal structure of trembling aspen to the food choice of North American porcupine. Oecologia 160:687–695.

Harding, S.A., M. Jarvie, R.L. Lindroth, and C.-J. Tsai. 2009. A comparative analysis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, N utilization and carbon partitioning in fast- and slow-growing Populus hybrid clones. Journal of Experimental Botany 60:3443-3452.

Holeski, L.M., A.Vogelzang, G. Stanosz, and R.L. Lindroth. 2009. Incidence of Venturia shoot blight damage in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) varies with tree chemistry and genotype. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 37:139–145.

Kanaga, M.K., L.C. Latta IV, K.E. Mock, R.J. Ryel, R.L. Lindroth, M.E. Pfrender. 2009. Plant genotypic diversity and environmental stress interact to negatively affect arthropod community diversity. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 3:249–258.

Madritch, M.D., and R.L. Lindroth. 2009. Removal of invasive shrubs reduces exotic earthworm populations. Biological Invasions 11:663-671.

Madritch, M.D., S.G. Greene, and R.L. Lindroth. 2009. Genetic mosaics of ecosystem functioning across aspen-dominated landscapes. Oecologia 160:119–127.

Meehan, T.D., and R.L. Lindroth. 2009. Scaling of individual phosphorus flux by caterpillars of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orygia leucostigma. Journal of Insect Science 9:42-50.

Pelini, S.L., K.M. Prior, D.J. Parker, J.D.K. Dzurisin, R.L. Lindroth, and J.J. Hellmann. 2009. Climate change and temporal and spatial mismatches in insect communities. Pp. 215-231, in Climate Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth. (T. Letcher, ed.) Elsevier, Inc. Amsterdam.


Donaldson, J.R., and R.L. Lindroth. 2008. Effects of variable phytochemistry and budbreak phenology on defoliation of aspen during a forest tent caterpillar outbreak. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 10:399-410.

Hillstrom, M.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2008. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone alter forest insect abundance and community composition. Insect Conservation and Diversity 1:233-241.

Parsons, W.F.J., J.G. Bockheim, and R.L. Lindroth. 2008. Independent, interactive, and species-specific responses of leaf litter decomposition to elevated CO2 and O3 in a northern hardwood forest.Ecosystems 11:505-519.

Schweitzer, J.A., M.D. Madritch, J.K. Bailey, C.J. LeRoy, D.G. Fischer, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, A.E. Hagerman, S.C. Wooley, S.C. Hart, T.G. Whitham. 2008. From genes to ecosystems: the genetic basis of condensed tannins and their role in nutrient regulation in a Populus model system. Ecosystems 11:1005-1020.

Stevens, M.T., E.L. Kruger, and R.L. Lindroth. 2008. Variation in tolerance to herbivory is mediated by differences in biomass allocation in aspen. Functional Ecology 22:40-47.

Wooley, S.C. , Walker, S., Vernon, J., and R.L. Lindroth. 2008. Aspen decline, aspen chemistry, and elk herbivory: Are they linked? Rangelands 30:17-21.


Awmack, C.S., E.B. Mondor and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Forest understory clover populations in enriched CO2 and O3 atmospheres: interspecific, intraspecific and indirect effects. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59:340-346.

Bailey, J.K., J.A. Schweitzer, B.J. Rehill, D.J. Irschick, T.G. Whitham, and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Rapid shifts in the chemical composition of aspen forests: an introduced herbivore as an agent of natural selection. Biological Invasions 9:715–722.

Donaldson, J.R., and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Genetics, environment, and their interaction determine efficacy of chemical defense in trembling aspen. Ecology 88:729-739 .

Madritch, M.D., J.R. Donaldson, and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Canopy herbivory can mediate the influence of plant genotype on soil processes through frass deposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39:1192-1201.

Madritch, M.D., L.M. Jordan and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Interactive effects of condensed tannin and cellulose additions on soil respiration. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:2063-2067.

Meehan, T.D., and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Modeling nitrogen flux by individual canopy herbivores from a temperate hardwood forest. Oecologia 153:833–843.

Lindroth, R.L., J.R. Donaldson, M.T. Stevens, and A.C. Gusse. 2007. Browse quality in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides): effects of genotype, nutrients, defoliation, and coppicing. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33:1049-1064.

Stevens, M.T., D.M. Waller, and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Resistance and tolerance in Populus tremuloides: genetic variation, costs, and environmental dependency. Evolutionary Ecology 21:829-847.

Wimp, G.M., S. Wooley, R.K. Bangert, W.P. Young, G.D. Martinson, P. Keim, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, and T.G. Whitham. 2007. Plant genetics predicts intra-annual variation in phytochemistry and arthropod community structure. Molecular Ecology 16:5057-5069.

Wooley , S.C. , J.R. Donaldson, M.T. Stevens, A.C. Gusse, and R.L. Lindroth. 2007. Extrafloral nectaries in aspen (Populus tremuloides): heritable genetic variation and herbivore-induced expression. Annals of Botany 100:1337–1346.


Bailey, J.K., S.C. Wooley, R.L. Lindroth, and T.G. Whitham. 2006. Importance of species interactions to community heritability: a genetic basis to trophic-level interactions. Ecology Letters 9:78-85.

Bangert, R.K., R.J. Turek, B. Rehill, G.J. Allan, G.M. Wimp, J.A. Schweitzer, G.J. Allan, J.K. Bailey, G.D. Martinsen, P. Keim, R.L. Lindroth, and T.G. Whitham. 2006. A genetic similarity rule determines arthropod community structure. Molecular Ecology 15:1379-1392.

Donaldson, J.R., E.L. Kruger, and R.L. Lindroth. 2006. Competition- and resource-mediated tradeoffs between growth and defensive chemistry in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). New Phytologist 169:561-570.

Donaldson, J.R., M.T. Stevens, H.R. Barnhill, and R.L.Lindroth. 2006. Age-related shifts in leaf chemistry of clonal aspen (Populus tremuloides). Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:1415-1429.

Fischer, D.G., S.C. Hart, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, P. Keim, and T.G. Whitham. 2006. Do high-tannin leaves require more roots? Oecologia 149:668-675.

Madritch, M.D., J.R. Donaldson and R.L. Lindroth. 2006. Genetic identity of Populus tremuloides litter influences decomposition and nutrient release in a mixed forest stand. Ecosystems 9:528-537.

Müller, M.S., S.R. McWilliams, D. Podlesak, J.R. Donaldson, H.M. Bothwell, and R.L. Lindroth. 2006. Tri-trophic effects of plant defenses: chickadees consume caterpillars based on host leaf chemistry. Oikos 114:507-517.

Osier, T.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2006. Genotype and environment determine allocation to and costs of resistance in quaking aspen. Oecologia 148:293-303.

Rehill, B.J., T.G. Whitham, G.D. Martinsen, J.A. Schweitzer, J.K. Bailey, and R.L. Lindroth. 2006. Developmental trajectories in cottonwood phytochemistry. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:2269-2285.

Tsai, C.-J., S.A. Harding, T.J. Tschaplinski, R.L. Lindroth, and Y. Yuan. 2006. Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus. New Phytologist 172:47-62.

Whitham, T.G., J.K. Bailey, J.A. Schweitzer, S.M. Shuster, R.K. Bangert, C.J. LeRoy, E. Lonsdorf, G.J. Allan, S.P. DiFazio, B.M. Potts, D.G. Fischer, C.A. Gehring, R.L. Lindroth, J. Marks, S.C. Hart, G.M. Wimp, and S.C. Wooley. 2006. A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nature Review Genetics 7:510-523.


Agrell, J., B. Kopper, E. P. McDonald, and R.L. Lindroth. 2005. CO2 and O3 effects on host plant preferences of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria). Global Change Biology 11:588-599.

Bailey, J.K., R.Deckert, J.A. Schweitzer, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, C. Gehring , and T.G. Whitham. 2005. Host-plant genetics affect hidden ecological players: links among Populus, condensed tannins and fungal endophyte infection. Canadian Journal of Botany 83:356-361.

Mondor, E.B., M.N. Tremblay, C.S. Awmack, and R.L. Lindroth. 2005. Altered genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of aphid populations under enriched CO2 and O3 atmospheres. Global Change Biology 11:1990-1996.

Rehill, B.J., A. Clauss, L. Wieczorek, T.G. Whitham, and R.L. Lindroth. 2005. Foliar phenolic glycosides from Populus fremontii, Populus angustifolia, and their hybrids. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 33:125-131.

Stevens, M.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2005. Induced resistance in the indeterminate growth of aspen (Populus tremuloides). Oecologia 145:298-306.

Whitham, T.G., E. Lonsdorf, J.A. Schweitzer, J.K. Bailey, D.G. Fischer, S.M. Shuster, R.L. Lindroth, S.C. Hart, G.J. Allan, C.A. Gehring, P. Keim, B.M. Potts, J. Marks, B.J. Rehill, S.P. DiFazio, C.J. LeRoy, G.M. Wimp, and S. Woolbright. 2005. All effects of a gene on the world: extended phenotypes, feedbacks and multi-level selection. Ecoscience 12:5-7.

Lindroth, R.L., and M.D. Dearing. 2005. Herbivory in a world of elevated CO2. Pp. 468-486, in A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effect on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. (J.R. Ehleringer, T.E. Cerling, and M.D. Dearing, eds.) Springer Science, Inc. New York, NY.


Awmack, C.S., R. Harrington, and R.L. Lindroth. 2004. Individual performance does not predict aphid population responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 or O3. Global Change Biology 10:1414-1423.

Bailey, J.K., J.A. Schweitzer, B.J. Rehill, R.L. Lindroth, and T.G. Whitham. 2004. Beavers as molecular geneticists: a genetic basis to the foraging of an ecosystem engineer. Ecology 85:603-608.

Donaldson, J.R., and R.L. Lindroth. 2004. Cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) performance in relation to variable phytochemistry in juvenile aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.).  Environmental Entomology 33:1505-1511.

Osier, T.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2004. Long-term effects of defoliation on quaking aspen in relation to genotype and nutrient availability: plant growth, phytochemistry and insect performance. Oecologia 139:55-65.

Parsons, W.F.J., R.L. Lindroth, and J.G. Bockheim. 2004. Decomposition of Betula papyrifera leaf litter under the independent and interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3. Global Change Biology 10:1820-1824.

Mondor, E.B., M.N. Tremblay, M.N., C.S. Awmack, and R.L. Lindroth. 2004. Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change. Global Change Biology 10:1820-1824.

Mondor, E.B., M.N. Tremblay, and R.L. Lindroth. 2004. Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity under future atmospheric conditions. Ecology Letters 7:127-134.

Schweitzer, J.A., J.K. Bailey, B.J. Rehill, G.D. Martinsen, S.C. Hart, R.L. Lindroth, P. Keim, and T.G. Whitham. 2004. Genetically based trait in a dominant tree affects ecosystem processes. Ecology Letters 7:127-134.


Holton, M.K., R.L. Lindroth, and E.V. Nordheim. 2003. Foliar quality influences tree-herbivore-parasitoid interactions: effects of elevated CO2, O3, and genotype. Oecologia 137:233-244.

Karnosky, D.F., D.R. Zak, K.S. Pregitzer, C.S. Awmack, J.G. Bockheim, R.E. Dickson, G.R. Hendrey, G.E. Host, J.S. King, B.J. Kopper, E.L. Kruger, M.E. Kubiske, R.L. Lindroth, W.J. Mattson, E.P. McDonald, A. Noormets, E. Oksanen, W.F.J. Parsons, K.E. Percy, G.K. Podila, D.E. Riemenschneider, P. Sharma, A. Sober, J. Sober, W.S. Jones, S. Anttonen, E. Vapaavuori, B. Mankovska, W. Heilmanand, and J.G. Isebrands. 2003. Tropospheric O3 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project. Functional Ecology 17:289-304.

Kopper, B.J., and R.L. Lindroth. 2003. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the phytochemistry of aspen and performance of an herbivore. Oecologia 134:95-103.

Kopper, B.J. and R.L. Lindroth 2003. Responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) phytochemistry and aspen blotch leafminer (Phyllonorycter tremuloidiella) performance to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and O3. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 5:17-26.

Parsons, W.F.J., B.J. Kopper, and R.L. Lindroth. 2003. Altered growth and fine root chemistry of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum under elevated CO2. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 842-846.

Whitham, T.G., W. Young, G.D. Martinsen, C.A. Gehring, J.A. Schweitzer, S.M. Shuster, G.M. Wimp, D.G. Fischer, J.K. Bailey, R.L. Lindroth, S. Woolbright, and C.R. Kuske. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84: 559-573.


Bale, J.S., G.J. Masters, I.D. Hodkinson, C.S. Awmack, T.M. Bezemer, V.K. Brown, J. Butterfield, A. Buse, J.C. Coulson, J. Farrar, J.E.G. Good, R. Harrington, S.E. Hartley, T.H. Jones, R.L. Lindroth, M.C. Press, I. Syrmnioudis, A.D. Watt, and J.B. Whittaker. 2002. Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Global Change Biology 8:1-16.

Kopper, B.J., V.N. Jakobi, T.L. Osier, and R.L Lindroth. 2002. Effects of paper birch condensed tannin on whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) performance. Environmental Entomology 31:10-14.

Lindroth, R.L., S.A. Wood, and B.J. Kopper. 2002. Response of quaking aspen genotypes to enriched CO2: foliar chemistry and tussock moth performance. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 4:315-323.

Lindroth, R.L, T.L. Osier, S.A. Wood, and H.R.A. Barnhill. 2002. Effects of genotype and nutrient availability on phytochemistry of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) during leaf senescence. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 30:297-307.

Percy, K.E., C.S. Awmack, R.L. Lindroth, M.E. Kubiske, B.J. Kopper, J.G. Isebrands, K.S. Pregitzer, G.R. Hendrey, R.E. Dickson, D.R. Zak, E. Oksanen, J. Sober, R. Harrington, and D.F. Karnosky. 2002. Altered performance of forest pests under atmospheres enriched by CO2 and O3. Nature 420:403-407.

Volin, J.C., E.L. Kruger, and R.L. Lindroth. 2002. Will atmospheric enrichment alter the response of deciduous broadleaf trees to defoliation? Tree Physiology 22:435-448.


Erwin, E.A., M.G. Turner, R.L. Lindroth, and W.H. Romme. 2001. Secondary plant compounds in seedling and mature aspen in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. American Midland Naturalist 145:299-308.

Kopper, B.J., R.L. Lindroth, and E.V. Nordheim. 2001. CO2 and O3 effects on paper birch (Betulaceae: Betula papyrifera) phytochemistry and whitemarked tussock moth (Lymantriidae: Orgyia leucostigma) performance. Environmental Entomology 30:1119-1126.

Lindroth, R.L., B.J. Kopper, W.F.J. Parsons, J.G. Bockheim, D.F. Karnosky, G.R. Hendrey, K.S. Pregitzer, J. Isebrands, and J. Sober. 2001. Consequences of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone for foliar chemical composition and dynamics in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Environmental Pollution 115: 395-404.

Lindroth, R.L, S. Roth, and E.V. Nordheim. 2001. Genotypic variation in response of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Oecologia 126:371-379.

Osier, T.L., and R.L. Lindroth. 2001. Effects of genotype, nutrient availability and defoliation on aspen phytochemistry and insect performance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27:1289-1313.

Lindroth, R.L. 2001. Adaptations of quaking aspen for defense against damage by herbivores and related environmental agents. Pp. 273-284, in Sustaining Aspen in Western Landscapes: Symposium Proceedings; 13-15 June 2000; Grand Junction, CO. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Experiment Station. Proceedings RMRS-P-18. Fort Collins, CO.


Agrell, J., E.P. McDonald and R.L. Lindroth. 2000. Effects of CO2 and light on tree phytochemistry and insect performance. Oikos 88:259-272.

Hemming, J.D.C., and R.L. Lindroth. 2000. Effects of phenolic glycosides and protein on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) performance and detoxication activities. Environmental Entomology 29:1108-1115.

Lindroth, R.L., R.W. Hofmann, B.D. Campbell, W.C. McNabb, and D.Y. Hunt. 2000. Population differences in Trifolium repens L. response to ultraviolet-B radiation: foliar chemistry and consequences for two lepidopteran herbivores. Oecologia 122:20-28.

Osier, T.L., S.Y. Hwang, and R.L. Lindroth. 2000. Effects of phytochemical variation in quaking aspen Populus tremuloides clones on gypsy moth Lymantria dispar performance in the field and laboratory. Ecological Entomology 25:197-207.

Osier, T.L., S.Y. Hwang, and R.L. Lindroth. 2000. Within- and between-year variation in early season phytochemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones in northern Michigan, U.S.A. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 28:197-208.


Agrell, J., E.P. McDonald, and R.L. Lindroth. 1999. Responses to defoliation in deciduous trees: effects of CO2 and light. Ecological Bulletins 47:84-95.

Hemming, J.D.C., and R.L. Lindroth. 1999. Effects of light and nutrient availability on aspen: growth, phytochemistry and insect performance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25:1687-1714.

Lindroth, R.L., S.-Y. Hwang and T.L. Osier. 1999. Phytochemical variation in quaking aspen: effects on gypsy moth susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25:1331-1341.

McDonald, E.P., J. Agrell and R.L. Lindroth. 1999. CO2 and light effects on deciduous trees: growth, foliar chemistry and insect performance. Oecologia 119:389-399.


Hwang, S.Y., and R.L. Lindroth. 1998.  Consequences of clonal variation in aspen phytochemistry for late season folivores.  Ecoscience 5:508-516.

Lindroth, R.L., and K.K. Kinney.  1998.  Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO2 and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 24:1677-1695.

Roth, S., R.L. Lindroth, J.C. Volin, and E.L. Kruger.  1998.  Enriched atmospheric CO2 and defoliation: effects on tree chemistry and insect performance.  Global Change Biology 4:419- 430.


Hwang, S.Y., and R.L. Lindroth. 1997. Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of aspen: effects on gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. Oecologia 111:99-108.

Kinney, K.K., and R.L. Lindroth. 1997. Responses of three deciduous tree species to atmospheric CO2 and soil NO3- availability. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1-10.

Kinney, K.K., R.L. Lindroth, S.M. Jung, and E.V. Nordheim. 1997. Effects of CO2 and NO3- availability on deciduous trees: phytochemistry and insect performance. Ecology 78:215-230.

Lindroth, R.L., K.A. Klein, J. D.C. Hemming, and A.M. Feuker. 1997. Variation in temperature and dietary nitrogen affect performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). Physiological Entomology 22:55-64.

Lindroth, R.L., S. Roth, E.L. Kruger, J.C. Volin, and P.A. Koss. 1997. CO2-mediated changes in aspen chemistry: effects on gypsy moth performance and susceptibility to virus. Global Change Biology 3:279-289.


Lindroth, R.L., and S.-Y. Hwang. 1996. Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24:357-364.

Lindroth, R.L. 1996. CO2-mediated changes in tree chemistry and tree-Lepidoptera interactions. Pp. 105-120, in Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. (G.W. Koch and H.A. Mooney, eds.) Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, San Diego.

Lindroth, R.L. 1996. Consequences of elevated atmospheric CO2 for forest insects. Pp. 347- 361, in Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities. (C. Korner and F.A. Bazzaz, eds.) Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, San Diego.

Lindroth, R.L., and S.-Y. Hwang. 1996. Diversity, redundancy and multiplicity in chemical defense systems of aspen. Pp. 25-56, in Phytochemical Diversity and Redundancy in Ecological Interactions. (J.T. Romeo, J.A. Saunders and P. Barbosa, eds) Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol. 30. Plenum Press, New York.


Hemming, J.D.C., and R.L. Lindroth. 1995. Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. Oecologia 103:79-88.

Hwang, S.-Y., R.L. Lindroth, M.E. Montgomery and K.S. Shields. 1995. Effects of aspen leaf quality on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Economic Entomology 88:278-282.

Lindroth, R.L., G.E. Arteel, and K.K. Kinney. 1995. Responses of three saturniid species to paper birch grown under enriched CO2 atmospheres. Functional Ecology 9:306-311.

Roth, S.K., and R.L. Lindroth. 1995. Elevated atmospheric CO2: effects on phytochemistry, insect performance and insect-parasitoid interactions. Global Change Biology 1:173-182.


Roth, S.K. and R.L. Lindroth. 1994. Effects of CO2-mediated changes in paper birch and white pine chemistry on gypsy moth performance. Oecologia 98:133-138.

Roth, S.K., R.L. Lindroth, and M.E. Montgomery. 1994. Effects of phenolics and ascorbic acid on performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22:341-351.

Thiboldeaux, R.L., R.L. Lindroth, and J.W. Tracy. 1994. Differential toxicity of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and related naphthoquinones to saturniid moths. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20:1631-1641.


Lindroth, R.L., K.K. Kinney and C.L. Platz. 1993. Responses of deciduous trees to elevated atmospheric CO2: productivity, phytochemistry and insect performance. Ecology 74:763-777.


Lindroth, R.L., M.A. Barman and A.V. Weisbrod. 1991. Nutrient deficiencies in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: effects on larval performance and detoxication enzyme activities. Journal of Insect Physiology 37:45-52.

Lindroth, R.L. and M.S. Bloomer. 1991. Biochemical ecology of the forest tent caterpillar: responses to dietary protein and phenolic glycosides. Oecologia 86:408-413.

Lindroth, R.L. 1991. Differential toxicity of allelochemicals to insects: roles of enzymatic detoxication systems. Pp. 1-33, in Insect-Plant Interactions, Vol. 3. (E.A. Bernays, ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.


Lindroth, R.L., and J.D.C. Hemming. 1990. Responses of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to tremulacin, an aspen phenolic glycoside. Environmental Entomology 19:842-847.

Lindroth, R.L. 1989. Biochemical detoxication: mechanism of differential tiger swallowtail tolerance to phenolic glycosides. Oecologia 81:219-224.

Lindroth, R.L. 1989. Mammalian herbivore – plant interactions. Pp. 163-206, in Plant-Animal Interactions (W.G. Abrahamson, ed.) McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, NY.

Lindroth, R.L., J.M. Scriber, and M.T.S. Hsia. 1988. Chemical ecology of the tiger swallowtail: mediation of host use by phenolic glycosides. Ecology 69:814-822.

Lindroth, R.L. 1988. Adaptations of mammalian herbivores to plant chemical defenses. Pp. 415-445, in Chemical Mediation of Coevolution (K.C. Spencer, ed.) Academic Press, New York, NY.

Lindroth, R.L., and M.S. Pajutee. 1987. Chemical analysis of phenolic glycosides: art, facts, and artifacts. Oecologia 76:144-148.

Lindroth, R.L., M.T.S. Hsia, and J.M. Scriber. 1987. Characterization of phenolic glycosides from quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 15:677-680.

Lindroth, R.L., M.T.S. Hsia, and J.M. Scriber. 1987. Seasonal patterns in the phytochemistry of three Populus species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 15:681-686.

Lindroth, R.L., and G.O. Batzli. 1986. Inducible plant chemical defenses: a cause of vole population cycles? Journal of Animal Ecology 55:431-450.

Lindroth, R.L., G.O. Batzli, and D.S. Seigler. 1986. Patterns in the phytochemistry of three prairie plants. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. l4: 597-602.

Lindroth, R.L., J.M. Scriber, and M.T.S. Hsia. 1986. Differential responses of tiger swallowtail subspecies to secondary metabolites from tulip tree and quaking aspen. Oecologia 70:13-19.

Lindroth, R.L., and G.O. Batzli. 1984. Plant phenolics as chemical defenses: effects of natural phenolics on survival and growth of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:229-244.

Program Info

Please visit our laboratory website for full program information: http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/lindroth/